Software development models are a collection of techniques and organizational systems for creating computer software. The goal of the various approaches is to structure work teams so that they can build program functionalities as efficiently as feasible. Software development models provide a framework for controlling the development of information systems. From planning through maintenance, a Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) model describes all of the processes in a software development project. These frameworks include program development as well as the tools required to help the development process.
There are several software developments models to choose from, but how do you determine which one is right for your project? for this, you must understand the value of quality, speed, and innovation, among other things, and establish priorities.
Reducing manual coding, improving re-usability, preventing security breaches, and reducing the demand on IT infrastructure are just a few of the objectives that must be addressed depending on the development technique you choose.
It is obvious that comprehending the life cycle of a project of this nature entails comprehending that, once a software development model and programming approach has been chosen, there are numerous additional steps to complete before the final product is delivered, many phases to pass through: analysis, design, development, integration and testing, acceptance, implementation, and maintenance.
Types of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Models:
Each software development model depicts a process from a unique perspective. These broad models are different concepts of processes that may be utilized in software development.
After extensive research and analyzing different Software Development Programs, we have generated a list of the top 9 Software Development Models with their applications for the development of your information systems:
1. The Waterfall Model
This is a paradigm where the phases of software development are strategically arranged so that the start of one development stage is preceded by the completion of the previous step.
One of its benefits is that it is appropriate for a customer who understands the product’s broad goal, and the development team, in turn, has a better understanding of the client’s interaction with the software and the environment in which it must be carried out.
Phases of the Waterfall Model:
- Analysis Phase: Planning, analysis and specification of the requirements.
- Design Phase: Design and specification of the system.
- Implementation Phase: Programming and unit tests.
- Verification Phase: Systems integration, system and integration tests.
- Deployment Phase: Systems Deployment
- Maintenance Phase: Delivery, maintenance and improvement.
When to use the Waterfall Model?
- When you have a clear idea of what you want the end result to look like.
- When clients are unable to alter the scope of a project once it has begun.
- When it comes to success, concept and definition are crucial (but not speed).
- When there are no doubts about what has to be done.
Also, read: Top Web Development Challenges and Solutions
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2. Spiral Model
Spiral Model is a type of Software Development Model in which activities are created in a spiral and carried out in the order in which they are chosen based on risk analysis.
In each iteration of this model, the objectives, or alternatives, must be chosen based on the characteristics, which include personal experience, criteria to be satisfied, and system management forms.
The angular form, which solely represents the development of the software inside the project, and the radial form, which indicates the growth in cost as each iteration takes longer to finish.
Phases of the Spiral Model:
The phases of the spiral model are:
- Planning phase: The initial step is to identify and set up objectives and goals to achieve. Then, as alternatives, they present the best potential ways to satisfy the objectives. All of this necessitates continuous communication between the customer and the project management team.
- Risk analysis phase: While planning and finalizing the risk reduction strategy, possible hazards are identified. Each highlighted danger is subjected to a thorough examination. Prototypes can be created to eliminate the possibility of ambiguous requirements. Risks are minimized by taking precautions.
- Engineering phase: It involves the software’s coding, testing, and deployment. Following a risk assessment, the development model is adopted. The model to be utilized is determined by the level of risk that has been recognized for that phase.
- Evaluation phase: The client’s assessment of the program. It is decided whether or not to repeat the cycle. Here the project’s next phase is being planned.
When to use The Spiral Model?
The spiral model’s advantages are most apparent in situations where:
- It is desirable to have frequent software releases.
- Prototyping is used.
- Risk and expense management are critical.
- In projects with a medium-high risk and a high risk.
- The requirement criteria are ambiguous and difficult to understand.
- There is a lot of change going on, and it may happen at any time.
- Whether for economic or other reasons, the long-term project commitment is compromised.
The V-model, also known as the four-tier model, is a concept used in a variety of development processes, such as software development.
The V-model provides supporting quality management methods and describes how these distinct stages might interact with one another, in addition to the project development phases. It gets its name from the shape of its body, which resembles the letter V.
Phases of the V-Model:
- Requirement Analysis: The initial step of the verification phase is to understand the customers’ expectations of our products by extensively communicating with the customers.
- System Design: Post the identification of customers’ requirements and expectations of our products, the detailed design system has to be developed for product development.
- Architectural Design: The system design is segregated into different modules according to their functionalities. The data transfer between the internal modules and other systems is acknowledged.
- Module Design: The designs are further segregated into smaller and more detailed modules.
- Unit Testing: Unit testing eliminates bugs at code or unit level.
- Integration Testing: Integration testing validates the internal communication between modules within the system.
- System Testing: System testing examines the functional and non-functional requirements of the developed application.
- User Acceptance Testing (UAT): UAT validates the usability of the developed system in the real world.
When to use the V Model Phase?
V Model Phase must be used during the following circumstances.
- When requirements and objectives are explicit and unambiguous.
- When technical requisites such as technical resources and technical experts are available at-hand.
- When developed system failures are acceptable.
4. The Rational Unified Process (RUP)
The Rational Unified Process (RUP) is a software application development approach that includes a number of tools to assist in the coding of the final product and the activities that go along with it. RUP is an object-oriented methodology for project management and high-quality software development.
The RUP is a set of approaches adjustable to the environment and demands of each company, rather than a system with rigid processes.
Phases of the Rational Unified Process (RUP) Model:
- Start: The central idea is visualized.
- Elaboration: Use cases and architecture are designed.
- Construction: Activities from design to finished product.
- Transition: Follow-up activities to ensure customer satisfaction.
When to use the RUP Model?
- When there is a constant change in the requirements.
- When you have accurate information and data.
- When you need certain integrations throughout the development process.
5. Incremental and Iterative model
Iterative and incremental software development is a technique of software development based on a cyclical pattern of release and update and a steady rise in feature additions.
Iterative and incremental software development starts with planning and continues through iterative development cycles with ongoing user feedback and incremental feature additions, culminating in software implementation at the conclusion of each cycle.
Phases of Incremental and Iterative Model:
The following steps can be used to classify iterative and incremental development:
- Initiation Phase: The initiation phase of a project deals with the scope, needs, and hazards at a higher level.
- Elaboration Phase: Creates a workable architecture that mitigates the risks identified in the first phase and meets non-functional criteria.
- Build phase: Gradually completes the architecture components with production-ready code, which is developed through functional requirement analysis, implementation, design, and testing.
- Transition Phase: Deliver the system to the production operating environment during the transition phase.
When to use the Incremental and Iterative Model?
The Incremental and Iterative Model can be used in the following situations:
- Rapid delivery of critical functionality is required.
- There is a new technological innovation that can be used to accomplish a project.
- The workgroup is unfamiliar with the domain.
- There is a corporation that has big aspirations for improvement.
6. Protype Model
When creating a software or application, it’s typical to use a prototype model to offer an earlier and functioning version that can be used as a presentation or sample of the project.
Prototyping is a great way to receive input on requirements, functionality, and operability, so that the final development of the product may go along more quickly and efficiently.
A prototype model is a functional application of the product that gives the idea of the final product’s or system’s fundamental features.
Phases of the Prototype Model:
- Requirement Analysis: The initial step of the model deals with establishing requirements of the desirable system.
- Design: After the identification of desired system requirements, a basic conceptual design is formed.
- Prototype formation: With the help of the basic conceptual design, a working prototype is built for the desired system.
- Initial Evaluation: The prototype is tested by the client in this step to evaluate functionalities and limitations.
- Refining Prototype: The prototype is further refined, analyzing the evaluation performed by the client.
- Production: After the refining process is executed, the final system is produced for real-time use.
When to use the Prototype Model?
- When the requirement of the desired system is unambiguous.
- When the basic functions of the desired system are yet to be evaluated.
- If the requirements of the resultant system need to be changed.
- To display the technical functionalities of the desired product by creating a prototype.
The Agile Group
Companies who are dedicated to a full digital transformation end up applying and developing agile approaches inside their departments in order to offer higher-quality goods and/or services at lower costs and in less time.
The agile approach to software development aims to provide functioning software systems in a short amount of time.
Agile software development approaches, in particular, aim to offer tiny bits of functioning software in a short amount of time in order to improve customer satisfaction. To achieve continuous development, these strategies employ flexible approaches and cooperation.
Agile Methodologies can be further classified into different types, such as;
When addressing challenges, projects utilizing this technique place a high value on the intellect, experience, and abilities that development team members bring to the table.
Project activities are completed in short cycles known as sprints, which are relatively manageable and well-prioritized, allowing for easy tracking of progress.
Compared to other software development models, this strategy would benefit larger initiatives, and one of the reasons is that developers feel dedicated to the goals and accountable for the initiative’s success.
Phases of the Scrum Agile Model:
- Product Backlog: The product backlog phase is when priority tasks are determined and concise and thorough information about the project to be created is gathered.
- Sprint: The sprint is the beating heart of the scrum process, a one-month time frame during which the creation of a potentially deliverable product takes place.
- Burn Down: The burn down is the phase in which a scrum project’s progress is measured. When each sprint is completed, the scrum master will be responsible for updating the visuals.
When to use Scrum Agile Model?
- This approach is used in situations where immediate results are required.
- In instances when there is a lot of ambiguity, and the duties aren’t well defined.
- When a client requests a highly customized development approach for a certain product.
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Kanban is a well-known framework for agile and DevOps software development. It necessitates real-time capacity communication and complete work openness.
Kanban is a flexible approach of visual work management that changes as the team’s needs change.
Kanban helps in the visualization of work so that it can be better understood, shown to others, and those who are interested may be kept up to date. As a result, we can assure that the service is capable of doing the task that the customer requires.
Phases of Kanban Agile Model:
- Identify and explain each and every process that takes place in manufacturing in detail.
- Visualize the above-mentioned processes: Assign each of them a card and place it on the Kanban panel.
- Once the processes have been visualized, it is more important to identify problems, such as bottlenecks, so that they may be revised and streamlined if required.
- Keep your work in progress to a minimum. That is, attempt to limit the quantity of activities completed so that employees may concentrate on what matters most.
- Take measurements and act on them. Because Kanban is a dynamic technique, it will be important to examine the results and take measures to improve the situation.
When to use the Kanban Agile Model:
- When you need to remove unnecessary processes and practices.
- When you need a model that provides a smooth flow of development process.
- When you’re aiming for the continuous improvement of the system.
9. Extreme Programming (XP)
The Extreme Programming technique allows specialists to make changes even after the iteration has begun. It normally takes 1 to 2 weeks to complete one iteration.
The XP or Extreme Programming approach is an agile development methodology with the goal of developing and managing projects with efficiency, flexibility, and control. It is built on communication, reuse of generated code, and feedback.
Phases of Extreme Programming (XP) Model:
- Planning: User stories are prioritized and split down into mini-versions based on their identity. There will be a reassessment of the planning.
- Encoding: Working with a simple code in this phase, performing only the absolute minimum to get it to operate. It will be possible to get the prototype.
- Testing: Programming is done in couples in front of the same computer, “two-handed.” It’s common for partners to be switched. This ensures that a more general code is created, which any other programmer can comprehend and work with.
- Launch: If we’ve arrived at this phase, it indicates we’ve successfully tested all user stories or mini versions while considering the client’s needs.
When to use the Extreme Programming (XP) Model?
This approach can be utilized when the following factors are required:
- Communication between the client and the development team is always open.
- Constant change necessitates a quick reaction.
- With a flexible calendar of activities, planning is open.
- Working software takes precedence over all other forms of documentation.
- The project’s major success criteria are the client’s needs and the efforts of the project team.
- Remotely collaborate on projects.
The comparison of software development models allows for the definition of an effectiveness level based on specified selection criteria. This comparison will be extremely beneficial when choosing a model, taking into account the software and project team characteristics.
The assessment of software development process models led to the discovery that the models are activities linked to software definition (analysis and design), development (coding), the development of tests to demonstrate software quality, and the implementation of the product in its real environment.
Frequently Asked Questions
The idea of the most effective software development model is subjective. It completely depends on the resources that the user possesses at hand and the requirement of the desired product. Each model has different requirements and consists of different processes of development. The time of completion also varies from model to model.
For a variety of reasons, the software project development model you choose is critical in software development. It will determine the project’s direction and outcomes from the start. You cannot switch models after you have started with one. The scope of the project and the timescales will undoubtedly be important considerations, especially when working with clients that need immediate results. When it comes to skill levels, the models might shift.
You cannot switch once you’ve started a model. However, many businesses utilize various software development methods for various projects. You can use different models for different systems but using two models in one system is not recommended.
It would completely depend upon the user’s requirements, resources, and desired outcomes. Each model requires a different set of resources. Also, the time of completion varies for each model. Having a brief overview of each model can significantly help you choose the best alternative as per the requirements.
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