Today, in this new era of the programming world, there are multiple languages, libraries, and frameworks used by developers for different purposes. And it is interesting to evaluate the similarities and differences between these technologies. Though it’s not like we want to start another programming languages conflict, it is really fun to take a new look at an acquainted technology and put it into view.
Also, it’s normal for business owners and developers to be faced with the judgment between two or more options, whether it’s a new technology stack range or a career move, or for a fresh project.
This article will clarify everything about these technologies – the similarities and differences between both – .NET and Java. The reason for considering these two is that most of the time Java developers tend to switch to .NET and vice versa.
The reason for this is, when it comes to .NET vs Java, these two technologies go head-to-head, quite often performing equivalent functions. These two are such great technologies that are generally known as the primary options for complicated, large-scale application development in the business sector.
Why should we compare them?
Now, you must be wondering why we are comparing Java vs .Net. Both these frameworks are utilized to create web or desktop applications and are extremely popular for building complex business solutions. They allow code modularity and are object-oriented, having similar syntax, both being based on C++ and C.
These frameworks – Java and .NET are widely employed for enterprise-level software development and other big data applications. Thus, it makes sense to compare these technologies to understand what suits your project as a customer or your preferences as a developer.
What do Java and .NET have in common?
They look alike
An incredible similarity between .NET and Java is the working mutual syntax. Java is primarily influenced by C++. And at the same time, C# shares specific syntax distinctive from other C-style languages, including C++, C, and Java itself.
They are compatible with Complex applications
Both Java and .NET frameworks are excellent enterprise-level technologies. They work very well with complex architectures, big data applications, and other high-load systems. They are both scalable and dependable solutions for most large-scale projects.
They are unique for different scenarios
Java is believed to be an extra-ordinarily multi-purpose language. You must have remembered that old slogan which states, “write once, run anywhere?” .NET framework at the same time, can also run-on desktop and server (including mobile) applications.
Major Difference Between Java and .Net
Java is practically a programming language, while .Net is a framework.
Java is generally known as a platform with JE frameworks such as JEE, J2EE, etc. It has a Java runtime environment that includes a just-in-time compiler, JVM, and a bytecode writer. It is a language with different libraries that can be utilized on any operating system.
On the other hand, .Net makes use of the Windows Enterprise Servers and Windows Operating System. Its framework includes Common Language Runtime, framework class libraries, and ASP.NET. It furthermore has a visual studio and personal building block services.
.Net has a proprietary platform of Microsoft which is incredibly secure than any other open-source platform. Security is an important concern, which is simply handled by Asp.Net developers as a closed platform.
While in the case of Java, the lack of resources security can generate a problem. The Common Language Runtime of .NET is considerably better than JVM.
JVM only converts the code into bytecode for basic operating systems. And it is not directed at computing machines, it is slightly slower than CLR. Java has tons of IDEs for its programming such as NetBeans, Eclipse, etc. Net, however, has Visual Studio.
Comparison Between Java And .Net
1. Basic Differences
Java is considered a kind of programming language that can work on any operating system. It offers a Java virtual machine (JVM) which allows the code to successfully run on any operating system and any device. Therefore, it is considered to be a portable language. Java furthermore supports languages like Ruby, Python, etc.
.Net is majorly known to be a framework that focuses exclusively on Windows, it supports diverse versions of Windows. .Net supports languages like C++, C#, VB.NET, etc. It supports various web services by default as this functionality is built in.
2. Integrated Development Environment
Java IDEs 4 provides a debugger, code editor, compiler, and elements such as Maven which help in creating the code without any stress. There are different IDEs such as NetBeans, Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA which make the development process easier. The platforms are user-friendly and even novices can utilize them without any pressure or stress. Eclipse has multiple plugins that allow developers to write good code and also get to test it.
Visual Studio is incorporated with .Net. It contains lots of features such as language-specific environments. The .net IDE serves as a single workspace that has multiple document interfaces which help in development activities such as compiling, editing, etc. The main feature of this IDE is that it provides form creation at design time. Thus, it saves time and improves speedy development. It furthermore helps in the customization of the appearance and behaviour of applications using different macros.
3. Performance, Compatibility and other factors
Java is an interpreted language and hence the code is not converted to machine language until its being launched. LINQ is not available in Java. Java 7 can utilize a switch statement on a string variable but not on the older frameworks.
LINQ allows a user to write queries instantly rather than making use of stored procedures. .Net is compiled and works on the operating system where the code is deployed. C# lets users use a switch statement on a string variable.
4. Advantages and Disadvantage
Java can run on any operating system; it is a portable language. You can create your website or application on any platform without any pressure or stress. Java generally calls database less often as all its domain objects are instantly ready. Tons of integrating connectors are readily available for Java and they are easily available on the internet. Furthermore, code written in Java is backward compatible and can be effortlessly moved from one operating system to another.
One of the major disadvantages of Java is security, which usually gets compromised in platform-agnostic solutions. Also, Scala is incompatible with Groovy, so it needs better development skills. Although multi-platform makes Java special, and at the same time it also tends to make Java slower.
Microsoft provides a comprehensive unified environment as a .Net platform. It offers absolute scalability which provides all IDEs and tools over the Microsoft network.
The disadvantage of .Net is that support is only available for the Entity framework. It limits object-relational support. In this framework, the managed code runs slower than the native code. The developers have to always depend on Microsoft for features, updates, and enhancements.
5. Major Strengths
Java has a three-tiered architecture that permits developers to create tiered web applications.
Java is no doubt one of the most suitable languages for business web development.
.Net furthermore provides a multi-tier framework that has functions where business logic and data are captured. It provides the best platform as a framework and also offers automatic garbage collection.
6) Popularity and Community
Companies today actively hire Java developers for both the newest technologies and legacy systems. And, Java has been around for a longer time and is cross-platform from the beginning. Thus, it has won a large community of developers who made the mobile, web, or desktop applications on Java that operated on different platforms for years. A large community does count, they can consistently provide support or share the experience they have gained over the years.
.NET developers are required as well but the number of job postings for them is incredibly lower. Multiple developers are likely to choose technologies that are more required which means that Java probably has a more significant talent pool.
When to use Java?
- Java, being a general-purpose language is used in multiple branches.
- Android applications
- Business applications, it is also employed for modern applications like Spotify or Pinterest.
- Web applications such as Google Docs, Gmail, etc.
- Software (Eclipse, Jira)
- Embedded systems
When to use .NET?
- Client applications
- Web applications and websites
- Enterprise development
Both Java vs .Net are considered very unique and extraordinary languages and they depend on the developer’s skills, requirements, and the infrastructure to choose whether Java or .Net is the best option to use for them. Both these technologies have quite similar use and are particularly good for complicated projects. A user is required to calculate the project costs for both Java and .Net platforms.
Java is good for web projects but .Net works effective for projects that involve API and web services. And if you are the type of user that depends on Windows more, then you can go for .Net. Therefore, it is best to analyse your requirements by checking your preference for both Java vs .Net languages and reach a conclusion that which language is perfect for your use. The most important thing to consider here is the complete operational efficiency of your business. So, make your choice as per your business and working requirements.
Frequently asked questions (FAQs)
Some of the significant features of Java Programming Language are:
i) Easy to learn - Java is a language that is considered easy to learn.
ii) Secured Feature - Java has a secured feature that helps in developing a tamper-free and virus-free system for the users.
iii) OOP: OOP stands for Object-Oriented Programming language which means that, in Java, everything is considered an object.
iv) Independent Platform: Java is compiled into a platform-independent bytecode instead of a platform-specific machine. This code is interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine on which the platform runs.
Mentioned below are the components of the .NET:
> Application Domain
> Common Type System
> Common Language run-time
> .NET Class Library
> .NET Framework
NET is a cross-platform, open-source software framework utilized for developing software applications. And on the other hand, Java is a platform-independent and object-oriented high-level programming language.
Java is intended to adjust to an evolving environment. Java programs contain a considerable amount of runtime information that is utilized to resolve access to objects in real-time.